Furthermore, while a strong correlation might be found between one event (e.g., Posidonia loss) and its cause (e.g., climate change), consideration of other factors might lead to the identification of additional causes (i.e., coastal development and increased turbidity and siltation). However, no phytotoxic effects were observed in both mature composts. What are the potential roadblocks to success? The dead leaves that accumulate on the coast further prevent coastal erosion. In subsequent years, fruits have been reported, but not seedlings. OMWW contains on average about 6% of organic matter and 0.4% of mineral salts suspended or dissolved in an aqueous medium. Except for the mixture of the residue of flocculation with olive stone, in the rest of the mixtures assayed, an important degradation of organic matter as well as cellulose was observed. The Posidonia ecosystem is very delicate and sensitive to pollution and is thus an important biological and environmental indicator. Different ratios of 2POMW to co-composting agent were examined. A drawback of composting is the fact that the quantity of (semi-) solid olive-mill wastes is not sufficient for all the waste produced and hence either an additional woody substrate or condensation of the waste is required. For a range of reproductive parameters including, among others, cocoon production and hatching success, all substrates were satisfactory with the 2POMW:CM 8:1, 2POMW:CM 2:1, and 2POMW:CM:BS being the most favorable for reproduction. Posidonia meadows are considered as a priority habitat (code 1120*) in the context of the European Habitats Directive 92/43/ΕC (EC, 1992). Compost treated with elemental sulfur did not show any potential phytotoxic effect as far as germination index is concerned. Positions of the PCR primers for the probe synthesis are indicated by arrows(>) for sens and (<) for reverse primers. A leaf punch of this size should yield 100-200 ng DNA, which is sufficient for DNA sequencing and, perhaps, DNA fingerprinting (AFLPs). Most people chose this as the best definition of posidonia: A taxonomic genus within... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. Although temperature was not an important factor for the oxidation rate, the control of moisture was considered to be decisive for the correct development of the process. For more information Alternatives include extraction of DNA from fresh samples (usually less than 1-2 days after harvesting), or freezing the fresh sample in liquid nitrogen or at –80°C. (2000), the initial study of the Posidonia beds revealed that 25–45% of the deep meadows had been altered or degraded by trawling. M.B. Two different piles prepared with OMWW sludge and either maize straw or cotton waste as bulking agents were composted by the Rutgers static pile system in a pilot plant, with the aim of ascertaining the most suitable conditions for degrading the OMWW sludges through composting. Connected shoots can then be identified and removed still connected. Seagrasses are important habitat formers, providing nursery grounds for fish populations, and they also recycle nutrients and stabilize coastal sediments. Assume that the nations that lie in the Mediterranean watershed contribute money and hire you as Director of the Program to Protect the Mediterranean Sea. (1996b, 2000, 2002) studied the influence of a bulking agent on the degradation of OMWW during its co-composting with agricultural wastes.  The leaves are bright green, perhaps turning brown with age, and have 13 to 17 parallel veins. Sulfur is oxidized to H2SO4 by sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms (actionomycetes and filamentous fungi and Thiobacillus bacteria) according to the following mechanism: 2POMW has been composted by Sciancalepore V. et al. It is considered the world's oldest organism, around 100,000 years old, as its origin dates from the Pleistocene epoch. How long do you think it would take to see results? 11.5) is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea and is the trademark habitat of the whole basin. Old leaves are shed seasonally and accumulate on the shore, forming dense masses. article “Predicting the effects of climate change on Bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) spawning habitat in the Gulf of Mexico” found on your Resource Page. Determine the time interval in between flowering events, as the number of rhizome segments in between the flower scars. What Is Posidonia? oceanica. Explain. Which of the current stressors that threaten the Mediterranean would you address first? It is characterized by a microtidal regime, which has only a secondary influence on the coastal dynamics. On the other hand, only 20% of the sodium consumed comes from the addition of salt during cooking and consumption or from the food itself.For an adult, the main sources of sodium are: cereals and cereal products (mainly bread). Consider how likely nations would be to adopt each of these steps, along with the potential impact of the actions. Where biosolids were added, a preincubation was required to remove substances toxic to earthworms. A total of 16 online events were held during the Posidonia Web Forums Week which included the Annual European Shipping Seminar of the … The end product is used as a means of plant growth with fertilizing properties, as a means to improve and enrich soil, as a means against soil erosion and exhaustion, as a product for land reclamation, as a product suitable for reforestation, as a crop-protective agent, and as organic material suitable to be mixed with metal compounds and minerals from industrial units (GR1003611, 2001). Summarize the likely implications of climate change for the bluefin tuna of the Mediterranean Sea. 8.7. International Shipping Exhibition is a biennial Trade Show. It is found at depths from 1â35 metres (3.3â114.8 ft), according to water clarity. The Posidonia Shale (German: Posidonienschiefer) is an Early Jurassic geological formation of southwestern Germany, northern Switzerland, western Czech Republic, northwestern Austria, southeast Luxembourg and the Netherlands, including exceptionally well-preserved complete skeletons of fossil marine fish and reptiles. Other useful drying agents such as alcohol (80-100%) or saturated CTAB/salt solution (Storchova et al. The degradability of the OMWW-wheat straw mixture is made evident by the great oxygen consumption. Fig. These facts motivated the development of a significant number of projects of AR deployment throughout the Mediterranean Sea (Jensen et al., 2000 and references therein). A plant with unique properties that makes it possible to harvest an exceptional salt with exceptional virtues. , This species is found only in the Mediterranean Sea where it is in decline, occupying an area of about 3% of the basin. The leaves are ribbon-like, appearing in tufts of 6 or 7, and up to 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) long. Despite international legislation to protect Posidonia at the European level, like the European Union’s Habitats Directive, and as a species (Bern Convention, Annex 1), this important aquatic plant is in grave danger of disappearing in the next few years. Composting temperature was controlled at 45–65°C and OMWW addition was fed in as necessary to maintain moisture content of 45–60% and to replenish the carbon substrate level. (1996) evaluated the quality of different products obtained through the composting of the solid residue that results from the flocculation of OMWW. To facilitate composting, the residue of flocculation was mixed with different lignocellulosic residues (straw, vine shoots, olive branches, and olive stone). Are you optimistic that you could complete your task? New rhizomes grow on old and dead ones, raising the sea bottom and forming a particular bioconstruction made of dead rhizomes. IT1244520 (1994) describes a process and plant for the treatment of OMWW, in which OMWW is poured onto a layer of agricultural earth contained in a tank, the pollutant substances contained in OMWW undergo a degradation process by means of the said agricultural earth, and finally this earth, transformed into soil-compost with fertilizing characteristics, is subjected to washing out with water in order to remove and recover the soluble salts. Figure 6-3. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) growth, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored over 35 days. Alan McIntosh, Jennifer Pontius, in Science and the Global Environment, 2017. (d) Tissue drying in silica gel filled vials.  Average leaf width is around 10 millimetres (0.39 in). The most effective ratios were: 2POMW:CM of 2:1 and 1:1, 2POMW:ANS of 16:1, 12:1 and 8:1, and 2POMW:AES of 16:1 and 12:1. Experimental results from a demonstration plant using olive cake as a bulking material and OMWW in a continuous feed have been reported by Vlyssides A.G. et al. The cumulative moisture and volatile solids content reduction during the temperature-induced aeration period of the process was 19 and 45%, respectively (Papadimitriou E.K. Cattle manure alone was used as a substrate for comparison. A rapid increase of microorganisms and bio-reactions occurred at the beginning of the process, which led to an increase of the temperature and pH and a decrease of total organic carbon. Substrates examined were: exhausted 2POMW, cattle manure (CM), mixtures of exhausted 2POMW and cattle manure (2POMW:CM 8:1, 2POMW:CM 2:1), mixtures of exhausted 2POMW and biosolids (2POMW:BS 16:1, 2POMW:BS 8:1) and a 16:1:1 mixture of 2POMW, manure and biosolids (2POMW:CM:BS). A total of six areas where Posidonia occurs were studied. How might the negative effects on the bluefin tuna affect other members of the Mediterranean Sea food web? The easiest to use is silica gel dessicant (e.g., Sigma-Aldrich Cat# 85344 or florist drying gel such as ‘Petalast’ or ‘Everlast'), which can be stored dry in sealed vials (typically 50-200 ml) until it is needed. The posidonia cDNA library was screened with a CA4H [32P]cDNA from H. tuberosus corresponding to its coding sequence under low stringency conditions (hybridisation at 55°C in 5xSSC, washing at 45°C in 0.2xSSC). Leaves are arranged in groups, with older leaves on the outside, longer and differing in form from the younger leaves they surround. (1980) processed OMWW in a tank filled with soil. Tomati U. et al. Why? The ecological role of Posidonia meadows is analogous to that of coral reefs in tropical areas. The largest Posidonia reef that can be found throughout Spain and the Mediterranean is located in Baleares, in the Ses Salines d'Eivissa i Formentera protected area. P. oceanica is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, whereas C. nodosa is also present in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. (1996), Nomiki Simboura, ... Panayotis Panayotidis, in, Diana I. Walker, ... Ronald C. Phillips, in, Methods for assessing seagrass seed ecology and population genetics, Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science, Bombace, 1989; Guillén et al., 1994; Ardizzone et al., 2000; Bianchi and Morri, 2000; Sánchez-Jerez et al., 2002, Methods for the measurement of seagrass growth and production, Verduin and Walker (in press), Smith and Walker (in prep). In addition, a decline of phytotoxicity, which the initial product presented, was observed. Six years after the installation of the Tabarca AR, the P. oceanica meadow had recovered significantly, with an increase of the mean shoot density to 60 shoots m−2. Both physico-chemical aspects of the process and the quality of the end-product were analyzed in a number of following papers (Galli E. et al., 1994, 1997; Tomati U. et al., 1995). Phanerogam meadows have developed in all shelf settings. 8.6. Many of the compounds reported for P. oceanica were, however, not detected by appropriate phytochemical methods and some most probably represent artifacts and are not genuine natural products of P. Winter stirring of surface water causes the progressive deepening and dissipation of the thermocline. Subsurface rhizomes and roots stabilize the plant while erect rhizomes and leaves reduce silt accumulation. The addition of manure or biosolids to the exhausted 2POMW enabled similar earthworm growth to that in the manure only. The European Union (EU) recognizes Posidonia meadows as a habitat of community importance, listed in the EU Habitats Directive. In contrast to Posidonia oceanica, Posidonia australis flowers frequently and produces large numbers of seeds (Figure 3-1). Posidonia once more managed to bring the shipping world together to debate the current challenges facing the industry. OMWW was added to the composting mass to replenish the water loss during processing in a pilot-scale open static container reactor. How can you justify nonprofit and governmental organizations focusing their efforts to restore the Mediterranean in light of the worldwide need? indicates similarities. Figure 7.2. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica (Fig. Other sea grasses (Zostera, Cymodocea) are not equally important but can be locally relevant. Posidonia meadows (concepts: F. Boero; art: Alberto Gennari). Fig. Why or why not? Posidonia is a genus of flowering plants.It contains nine species of marine plants ) (" seagrass"), found in the seas of the Mediterranean and around the south coast of Australia. Most Sites of Community Importance in Mediterranean EU waters have been crated due to the presence of Posidonia meadows. Initiated in Formentera, a project to map posidonia oceanic meadows and make them visible with an app and google earth. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128050682000607, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123851406000074, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444829139500213, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0713274306800103, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128050682000127, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444508911500049, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128017128000020, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444508911500074, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123747112010081, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444508911500098, Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat, 2012, World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation (Second Edition), Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat. In terms of the health and survival of bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean, the future is loaded with challenges: chemical, physical, and biological. Graeme J. Inglis, Michelle Waycott, in Global Seagrass Research Methods, 2001. Despite the extent of seagrass studies particularly in Australia, much of this work has been focussed on distribution, biomass and productivity. Examine the oldest shoots collected with the core for the presence of more than one flowering mark. The APG system (1998) and APG II system (2003) accept the genus as constituting the sole genus in the family Posidoniaceae, which it places in the order Alismatales, in the clade monocots. Therefore, their bioremediation through composting must be achieved by adding other materials having a high absorbing capacity, such as agricultural lignincellulose residues. Posidonia is one of the main oxygen (ca. The pH, E.C., total C and N, humic substances, phenolics, volatile acids, lipids, P and K values plus yeast, fungi, heterotrophic, cellulolytic and nitrifying bacteria, and phytotoxicological parameters were monitored during a 120-day stabilization process. Exhausted 2POMW alone was an inadequate substrate for vermicomposting on account of slow earthworm growth and infertility. It forms large underwater meadows that are an important part of the ecosystem. Map of the seas surrounding Italy: bathymetry represented by blue tones, emerged areas by shaded relief. Furthermore, it produces no liquid waste, has a low fixed cost and the final product could be marketed as a high-quality soil conditioner (Vlyssides A.G. et al., 1989). How would you address it? Locations were characterized by a different ecological condition: degraded Posidonia meadows; meadows in good conditions; meadows close to the best reference conditions. The quality of Formentera’s waters, unique for their transparency and turquoise colour, is due to the presence of large Posidonia Oceanica underwater meadows. Two aspects of carbon compound metabolism — lignin degradation and bioconversion of phenols — were particularly investigated. Feel free to focus on a specific process or species, considering all of the interactions it has with its surrounding biotic and abiotic components of the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem. It forms large underwater meadows that are an important part of the ecosystem. The meadows grow on reefs formed very slowly by the accumulation of the plant itself and remains of other sediments. One of the first things that we must know about the posidonia oceanica is what it is NOT. The study area contains examples of intact Posidonia meadows as well as sites impacted by human activities. What might be the necessary catalyst for action? This page was last edited on 27 August 2020, at 04:07. In other species, particularly small Halodule, Halophila and Zostera taxa, it will be necessary to uncover and remove short pieces of rhizome with 2-3 shoot meristems or more depending upon the application (Figure 6-3a-c). How would you measure the success of the program? Sequence alignments strongly suggest that this monooxygenase gene was highly conserved during evolution (Fig. The rate of OMWW treatment achieved in this study was 2.1 l/kg starting solid substrate (dry weight). Higher rates of vegetative growth were recorded at the protected meadows. Frederick T. Short, Carlos M. Duarte, in Global Seagrass Research Methods, 2001. The procedure applied comprises the collection and transfer of the sea grass to the treatment unit and then mixing with various organic wastes such as OMWW (Posidonia oceanica 67%, goat manure 20%, and OMWW 13%) and olive cake (Posidonia oceanica 67%, olive cake 23%, grape pomace 6%, olive leaves 1.5%, and sheep manure 2.5%), so that the C/N ratio is approximately 30:1 in the product of mixing. Oxygen consumption, microbial growth and urease activity were greatly enhanced during the thermophilic phase, reaching their maximum in about three weeks. 80% of the sodium consumed by humans comes from the food industry (this is called “hidden consumption”). 1992). Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow from Santorini Island. Exercise 10: Many climate scientists believe that the future will see increased droughts in the Mediterranean Sea’s watershed. Filippi C. et al. The sedimentary setting of each area varies according to the geomorphology of its land counterpart. The shelf width varies from 5 to over 100 km, and the coast is mainly flat and sandy (78%), but parts are also steep and rocky (22%). Composting can be put into effect by means of a mixture of solids with agricultural waste, essentially as cereal straw, sawdust, or the remaining solid waste from the olive-mill. (2004) studied in a laboratory scale incubation experiment the effect of different variables (moisture, temperature, and sulfur concentration) on the oxidation rate of elemental sulfur, added to an organic compost prepared with 2POMW and sheep litter. Posidonia meadows can be very dense and extensive, and in clear waters the grass like plant can live in depths of up to 40 metres. Posidonia ONLY lives in the Mediterranean sea and is believed to be 10 thousands of years old. Nomiki Simboura, ... Panayotis Panayotidis, in World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation (Second Edition), 2019. The results obtained suggested that co-composting might be an adequate low-cost strategy for the recycling of olive-mill by-products. The compost can, therefore, be satisfactory used as amendment for agricultural crops. To sample Thalassia, Posidonia, Enhalus, or Cymodocea a single shoot may be taken, including the leaf meristem at the base of the sheath, accomplished by removing the sediment from around the shoot, and cutting below the base of the sheath. This article presents the results from the long-term Water Framework Directive monitoring of Posidonia oceanica in the Valencian Community, Spain. Flower marks are identified as the scar (roughly circular in shape) left by the flower peduncle, located in one side of the stem, generally in areas of locally increased stem thickness. The decline of these habitats and their associated biota throughout the Mediterranean Sea is mostly related to fishing. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website concludes that the three families Cymodoceaceae, Posidoniaceae and Ruppiaceae form a monophyletic group. Anne Schoendorf, ... Jean-Pierre Salaün, in, Comparison of the partial nucleotidic sequence of the, Negro Alvarez M.J. and Solano M.L. In terms of the naturalness of the study area, Posidonia meadows represent the climax of the shelf biocoenosis; therefore, their presence indicates pristine environmental conditions [2,3]. DEVELOPMENT OF CYTOCHROME P450 BIOMARKERS FROM POSIDONIA OCEANICA. Which would be most difficult? The waterproof floor prevents filtration of polluting substances in the treated wastewater from percolating into the underlying soil. Many observations of flowering are anecdotal, and the literature often does not contain the detailed sequence of flowering (Table 3-8). Figure 7.1. Once removed from the sediment, any extraneous material is rinsed from the plant, and the tissue ‘snap-dried’ using one of a variety of drying agents to remove moisture and preserve the DNA. , In 2006 a huge clonal colony of P. oceanica was discovered south of the island of Ibiza and stretches as far south as La Savina and Es Pujols on the island of Formentera. At 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) across, and estimated at around 100,000 years old, it may be one of the largest and oldest clonal colonies on Earth. All substrates supported earthworm growth and reproduction, with growth occurring for 4–8 weeks. The meadows of P. oceanica rarely exceed 20 m depth in the north Aegean Sea, but may exceed 40 m depth in the southern Aegean and the Ionian seas. What steps would you ask all the nations in the basin to take to help accomplish this task? Pergent, G., Semroud, R., Djellouli, A., Langar, H. & Duarte, C. 2010. (b) Section of rhizome to be collected (circled) with at least 3 shoots in species such as Halodule and Zostera and the meristem inside the sheath as for a. The high initial value of protease and the rapid increase of urease activity indicate that nitrogen sources are promptly utilized by the growing microflora. These ratios favor the growth of microorganisms, which control the biological composting process and help sea grass, which is slow to break down naturally, to decompose and release its nutrients. At least 5 times the volume of drying gel:tissue should be used (Figure 6-3d). Where is the sodium hiding? Such plant material has been used for composting, but Italian laws prohibit the use of marine algae and plants for this purpose. Roig A. et al. The composting was carried out in a climatic chamber in PVC containers having a capacity of 5 l. Samples were periodically taken which were characterized and analyzed. (a) Typical large strap leaved seagrass such as Thalassia, Posidonia or Cymodocea with meristem to be collected for DNA extraction inside the sheath (circled). The salinity content of the compost was the factor restricting the treatment of OMWW by the process. Which of the stressors facing the Mediterranean could be “fixed” most easily? Flow diagram of the demonstration plant (Vlyssides A.G. et al., 1996). Posidonia oceanica, commonly known as Seagrass, is an angiosperm plant, adapted to underwater life.It is a key element to preserve the Mediterranean ecosystems. Flowers of P. australis are held above the canopy whereas those of P. sinuosa are below the canopy (Cambridge and Kuo 1979). The (x) indicates the start of the posidonia CA4H, (:) indicates positions absolutly conserved for both sequences and (.) However, there is no doubt that the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem will survive in some form. You’re given an annual budget of $100 million euros. Several of these tend to be about Transportation, Logistics, Shipping and Shipping Industry. Search posidonia and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. Increase of water turbidity due to anthropogenic factors or eutrophication. A, OMWW feed; B, feed storage tank; C, co-composting bioreactor; D, urea feed system; E, agitator; F, air feeding fans; G, roof to prevent access of rainwater; H, mono-pump for OMWW dosing; I, proportional pump feeding urea solution; K, computer for controlling and data collection; L, traveling bridge for the agitator; M, motors; TC, temperature controller. Composting of olive-mill wastes has been examined as a potential bioremediation treatment of these wastes (Vlyssides A.G. et al., 1999; HR20010028, 2002). DISCOVER Posidonia is our first 100% biodegradable and compostable cover that aims to increase public awareness of the most important and most endangered plant in the Mediterranean: Posidonia Oceánica. (2002) evaluated also the possibility of co-composting olive cake and OMWW. Posidonia oceanica is a plant adapted to underwater life and a key element to preserve the Mediterranean ecosystems. A number of laboratory studies assessed the suitability, as a vermicomposting substrate, of exhausted 2POMW either alone or mixed with cattle manure and/or municipal biosolids (Nogales R. et al., 1999). What steps might be taken to mitigate some of these impacts on the ecosystem? In 1999 Posidonia fields in Ibiza and Formentera have been declared world heritage site by … Posidonia is a brazilian shipping company focused on coastal and international shipping and offshore operations, and ship management. Active fishing gears, such as bottom trawling (and bivalve dredges to a lesser extent), have been pointed out as the main cause for the regression of the P. oceanica meadows and maerl beds (Bombace, 1989; Guillén et al., 1994; Ardizzone et al., 2000; Bianchi and Morri, 2000; Sánchez-Jerez et al., 2002). et al., 1997). Balls of fibrous material from its foliage, known as egagropili, wash up to nearby shorelines. Competition of other plants, as is the case of Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) and Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl). Good metabolic activity of the microbiological population, with the starting material was also observed. (1994), these seagrass beds have an ecological and economical importance providing a climax community of soft, coastal seabeds; a high spatial heterogeneity, with different ecological niches; nursery and spawning areas for commercial finfish species (e.g., Sparidae, Mullidae, Serranidae, and Scorpaenidae), decapod crustaceans (e.g., spider crabs and lobsters), and cephalopods (e.g., cuttlefish, squid, and octopus); and food and shelter for juveniles and adults of coastal living resources. Silvana D’Angelo, Andrea Fiorentino, in Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat, 2012. Exercise 8: To learn more about the potential effects of climate change on bluefin tuna, read the Muhling et al. Posidonia oceanica is a flowering plant which lives in dense meadows or along channels in the sands of the Mediterranean. The fruit is free floating and known in Italy as "the olive of the sea" (l'oliva di mare ). Prior to the AR deployment, P. nobilis was absent; 18 months after the installation of the Campello AR, a population density of five juvenile specimens per 250 m2 was observed. Exercise 12: There are many seas around the world facing similar, if not more severe, environmental threats. The development of the thermophilic microorganisms, particularly fungi, allows the degradation of lignin. Della Monica M. et al. A bioassay indicated that the final products were not phytotoxic. The above study demonstrated that exhausted 2POMW is a suitable medium for vermicomposting when combined with N-rich materials such as cattle manure and sewage sludge in appropriate ratios. Factors affecting the health of Posidonia meadows include the following: Variation of sedimentary equilibrium (a high sedimentation rate may cover and suffocate the rhizomes; a very low sedimentation rate may be insufficient to support the development of a meadow). The Posidonia is a marine plant endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The Union of Greek Shipowners and the Greek shipping community look forward to greeting old friends and welcoming new participants at Posidonia 2022. These species characterize environments ranging from 0 to 50 m and are widespread along the Italian coast. By using this method, it is possible to transform either fresh OMWW or sludge from pond-stored OMWW mixed with appropriate plant waste materials (carriers) into organic fertilizers (composts) with no phytotoxicity to improve soil fertility and plant production (Paredes C., 1998, Paredes C. et al., 1996a). (c) Collections of Halophila with 3 meristems may require a set of rhizome branches to be collected. A seasonal thermocline is present at a depth between 15 and 40 m, caused by the summer heating of surface waters. > 400 species of algae and 500 species of invertebrates can be found in Posidonia meadows, which play a vital role as reproductive and nursery grounds for over 80 species of fish. The quality of cured compost obtained by a mixture of crude olive cake, 2POMW and fresh olive tree leaves inoculated with cow manure, after six months of composting has been evaluated. On the other hand, analysis of commercial landings data suggested an increase in the catch of some importance fish species since the deployment of the Campello anti-trawling reef. The Tyrrhenian Sea is a deep back-arc basin originated by the Alpine and Apenninic orogenesis. Posidonia meadows are present throughout a large part of the Mediterranean but in some areas they have almost disappeared, especially along the middle and northern Adriatic, whereas they thrive in the southern Adriatic. They are an important sink of CO2 and an equally important source of O2, and they are habitat for numerous species, some of commercial importance and some living exclusively in association with the meadows.
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